Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Radio module integration and R&TTE compliance, EMC evaluation

radio module

radio module (Photo credit: ckhamken)

Building on a previous post focusing on radio module integration and the Radio and telecommunications terminal equipment (R&TTE) directive compliance, this article will focus on compliance of the combined apparatus with section 3.1(b) of the R&TTE directive, namely the essential requirements of Electromagnetic Compatibility or EMC.

As a basic primer, the R&TTE directive’s essential requirements are detailed within the directive under article 3, to paraphrase;

3.1 Essential requirements applicable to all apparatus;

       a. Safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive, with lower limits removed

       b. Electromagnetic compatibility as per EMC directive

3.2 Effective use of radio spectrum

3.3 Construction, protection and accessibility requirements (with a number of specified items)

As posited in a previous post “Radio module integration and R&TTE compliance”, compliant radio modules installed in accordance with a manufacturer’s installation instruction require no further evaluation to article 3.2 of the R&TTE directive. However, an assessment, in most cases, will be necessary for article 3.1(a) and 3.1(b). The combined product will essentially form a new apparatus.

Given that the combined product should be assessed as a new apparatus, a couple questions may arise. What EU directive and standards apply? How do you make an assessment for EMC on the combined product?

When adding a radio to an apparatus, the new combined apparatus now falls within the scope of the R&TTE directive. ETSI EN 301 489-1 annex C gives guidance regarding this combined equipment EMC assessment, and it is based on the ETSI TR 102 070-1 technical report. In accordance with the guidance, for a combined apparatus where all products can operate independently of each other, an evaluation may be made by review of existing assessment of the individual apparatus, and if it is concluded that the combined configuration has been assessed and is representative of the combined apparatus, and, is used in according to its manufacturer’s instructions, it is not necessary to re-assess the apparatus. If there is insufficient information to make an evaluation, or the results of the evaluation are unclear, then an additional assessment shall be performed. Most of the time an assessment for EMC of the combined apparatus will not have been performed, or there is insufficient data to support a declaration of conformity.

Although under the scope of the R&TTE directive, the selection of applicable standards for EMC will be based on the primary function of the newly combined apparatus. The manufacturer shall declare the primary function and identify applicable standards from the EMC directive and/or R&TTE directive. The assessment should be supplemented with test levels and extended frequency ranges to cover both radio and non-radio aspects of the newly combined apparatus (i.e. a worst case representation of applicable levels and limits). See this flow chart from Compatible Electronics for a simplification of the assessment process based on the ETSI guidance.

The declaration of conformity will need to declare compliance with the R&TTE directive, and the party responsible for the completed combined apparatus is the party responsible for ensuring that the final configuration, when used properly, and in accordance with the provided instructions, fulfills ALL essential requirements of the R&TTE directive.



ETSI TR 102 070-1

ETSI EN 301 489-1 annex C

R&TTE CA TGN 01 Rev 5


Thursday, October 25, 2012

FCC policy and procedure updates, it’s a big one

Logo of the United States Federal Communicatio...

Logo of the United States Federal Communications Commission, used on their website and some publications since the early 2000s. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Knowledge Database section of the Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) web site has a significant number of new publications today. The new updates impact technical requirements such as software defined radios, RF safety and Digital Transmission Systems (DTS) measurement procedures. Other updates cover administrative issues as well as  guidance and policy for Telecommunication Certification Bodies.

While the FCC continually updates these policies and procedures as needed, we tend to see the most significant changes going into the spring and fall seasons. Part of the reason for this is the TCB council holds regular training workshops in the spring and fall. The FCC is generally in attendance, and uses the opportunity to update the community on policy matters and technical issues. The training workshops become sort of a deadline for publication in this way. We also see a number of updates just following the training workshops as questions and comments begin to hit the FCC.

You can visit the OET KDB site at Below is a categorized summary with excerpts of the updates for your convenience. If these issues are important to you, I suggest regular checks of the FCC KDB publications to stay current with the rules.

1. Administrative

a. Permissive Change Policy

i. 10/24/2012: D01 Permissive Change Policy v05r02 has been changed to 178919 D01 Permissive Change Policy v05r03 to allow TCBs to approve third party software upgrades as PBA. Permissive changes and RF exposure considerations has been changed to reference the published RF exposure KDB procedures.

b. Permit But Ask List

i. 10/24/2012: 388624 D02 Permit But Ask List v11 replaces 388624 D02 Permit But Ask List v10 Several changes have been made to the document to clarify the types of devices subject to the PBA review process.

c. Software Defined Radio Application Guide

i. 10/24/2012 442812 D01 SDR Apps Guide v02 has been changed to 442812 D01 SDR Apps Guide v02r01. Removed the requirement for non-SDR to file a Class II permissive change directly with the Commission.

d. TCB Exclusion List

i. 10/25/2011 628591 D01 TCB Exclusion List v12r02 replaces 628591 D01 TCB Exclusion List v12r01. Removed Access Broadband over Power Line (BPL) devices (Part 15 Subpart G);

ii. 10/24/2012 D01 TCB Exclusion List v13 replaces 628591 D01 TCB Exclusion List v12r02. Clarified requirements for devices subject to RF Exposure requirements; removed non-SDR Class II permissive change applications for certain types of devices.

e. SAR Listings on Equipment Authorization Grants

i. 10/24/2012: 690783 D01 SAR Listings on Grants v01r01 has been changed to 690783 D01 SAR Listings on Grants v01r02 to reflect changes made to RF exposure guidance.

2. Technical

a. Mobile and Portable Devices RF Exposure Procedures and Equipment Authorization Policies

i. 10/24/2012: 447498 D01 General RF Exposure Guidance v04 has been changed to 447498 D01 General RF Exposure Guidance v05. The new version (v05) is a major revision to version 04.

b. Guidance for Performing Compliance Measurements on Digital Transmission Systems (DTS) Operating Under §15.247

i. 10/04/2012: 558074 D01 DTS Meas Guidance v01 has been changed to 558074 D01 DTS Meas Guidance v02. V02 is a major change to the v01 guidance with additional measurement options.

c. Restrictions on Software Configuration for devices not approved as Software Defined Radios

i. 10/24/2012 Publication: 594280 D01 Software Configuration Control v01r01 has been changed to 594280 D01 Software Configuration Control v01r02 Removed for Non SDR the requirement to file a Class II permissive change directly with the Commission.

d. SAR Evaluation Considerations for Laptop, Notebook, Netbook and Tablet Computers

i. 10/24/2012: 16217 D04 SAR for laptop and tablets v01 replaced previous guidance:616217 D01 SAR for Laptop with Screen Ant v01r01, 616217 D02 SAR Policy Laptop with Screen Ant v01r01and 16217 D03 SAR Supp Note and Netbook Laptop v01

e. SAR Evaluation Considerations for Wireless Handsets

i. 10/24/2012: 6648474 D04 SAR Handsets Multi Xmiter and Ant v01 replaces 48474 D01 SAR Handsets Multi Xmiter and Ant v01r05 and 648474 D02 SAR Polcy Handsts Multi Xmiter Ant v01r01

f. Emissions Testing of Transmitters with Multiple Outputs in the Same Band (e.g., MIMO, Smart Antenna, etc)

i. 10/25/2011: 662911 D01 Multiple Transmitter Output v01 changed to 662911 D01 Multiple Transmitter Output v01r01 to add references to new attachment 662911 D02 in the second paragraph of the document and in the INTRODUCTION section. The referenced attachment identifies an exception to the requirement for summing emissions across outputs in certain cases involving devices that drive cross-polarized antennas and identifies the need to sum radiated emissions across polarizations in certain other cases.

g. MIMO with Cross-Polarized Antenna


h. Guidelines for Compliance Testing of Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices Part 15, Subpart E

i. Too many to list, see KDB

i. SAR Evaluation Considerations for LTE Devices

i. 10/24/2012 941225 D05 SAR for LTE Devices v02 replaces 941225 D05 SAR for LTE Devices v01. Version v02 represents a major revision to version v01.


Office of Engineering and Technology Laboratory Division Knowledge Database (KDB)

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

R&TTE Directive List of Harmonized standards updated

A new list of “Harmonised” standards has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union with reference to the Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment  Directive 1999/5/EC .

Below is a table of the most recent updates, or go directly to the full Publication of titles and references of harmonised standards under the directive.


ESO (1)

Reference and title of the harmonised standard
(and reference document)

Reference of superseded standard

Date of cessation of presumption of conformity of superseded standard
Note 1

Article of Directive 1999/5/EC


EN 50360:2001/A1:2012 (new)

Product standard to demonstrate the compliance of mobile phones with the basic restrictions related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields (300 MHz - 3 GHz)

Note 3


Article 3(1)(a)


EN 60730-1:2011 (new)

Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use -- Part 1: General requirements
IEC 60730-1:2010 (Modified)


Article 3(1)(a) (and Article 2 2006/95/EC) + Article 3(1)(b)


EN 61000-3-12:2011 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) -- Part 3-12: Limits - Limits for harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current > 16 A and <= 75 A per phase
IEC 61000-3-12:2011

EN 61000-3-12:2005
Note 2.1


Article 3(1)(b)


EN 300 220-2 V2.4.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25 MHz to 1 000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW; Part 2: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements under article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive

EN 300 220-2 V2.3.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(2)


EN 300 328 V1.8.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Wideband transmission systems; Data transmission equipment operating in the 2,4 GHz ISM band and using wide band modulation techniques; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive

EN 300 328 V1.7.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(2)


EN 301 489-17 V2.2.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment; Part 17: Specific conditions for Broadband Data Transmission Systems

EN 301 489-17 V2.1.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(1)(b)


EN 301 489-34 V1.3.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 34: Specific conditions for External Power Supply (EPS) for mobile phones

EN 301 489-34 V1.1.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(1)(b)


EN 301 559-2 V1.1.2 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);Short Range Devices (SRD); Low Power Active Medical Implants (LP-AMI) operating in the frequency range 2 483,5 MHz to 2 500 MHz;Part 2: Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive


Article 3(2)


EN 301 843-1 V1.3.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for marine radio equipment and services; Part 1: Common technical requirements

EN 301 843-1 V1.2.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(1)(b)


EN 301 893 V1.7.1 (new)

Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN); 5 GHz high performance RLAN; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive

EN 301 893 V1.6.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(2)


EN 302 288-2 V1.6.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices; Road Transport and Traffic Telematics (RTTT); Short range radar equipment operating in the 24 GHz range; Part 2: Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive

EN 302 288-2 V1.3.2
Note 2.1


Article 3(2)


EN 302 774 V1.2.1 (new)

Broadband Wireless Access Systems (BWA) in the 3 400 MHz to 3 800 MHz frequency band;Base Stations;Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive

EN 302 774 V1.1.1
Note 2.1


Article 3(2)

NOTE: Date Format is the European Date Format DD/MM/YYYY (List is an excerpt for the list provided at and only represents new items)

For links to this and lists for other directives, please visit Compatible Electronics’ European Conformity Assessment page.

EMC Directive List of Harmonized standards updated

A new list of “Harmonised” standards has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union with reference to the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive 2004/108/EC .

Below is a table of the most recent updates, or go directly to the full Publication of titles and references of harmonised standards under the directive.


Reference and title of the harmonised standard
(and reference document)

Reference of superseded standard

Date of cessation of presumption of conformity of superseded standard
Note 1


EN 50083-2:2012 (new)

Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services -- Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility for equipment

EN 50083-2:2006
Note 2.1



EN 50550:2011

Power frequency overvoltage protective device for household and similar applications (POP)

EN 50550:2011/AC:2012 (new)



EN 60730-1:2011 (new)

Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use -- Part 1: General requirements
IEC 60730-1:2010 (Modified)

EN 60730-1:2000
and its amendments
Note 2.1



EN 60947-3:2009/A1:2012
IEC 60947-3:2008/A1:2012 (new)

Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear -- Part 3: Switches, disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units

Note 3



EN 61000-3-12:2011 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) -- Part 3-12: Limits - Limits for harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current > 16 A and <= 75 A per phase
IEC 61000-3-12:2011

EN 61000-3-12:2005
Note 2.1



EN 61439-3:2012 (new)

Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies -- Part 3: Distribution boards intended to be operated by ordinary persons (DBO)
IEC 61439-3:2012



EN 61800-3:2004/A1:2012
IEC 61800-3:2004/A1:2011 (new)

Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems -- Part 3: EMC requirements and specific test methods

Note 3



EN 300 386 V1.6.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Telecommunication network equipment; ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements

EN 300 386 V1.5.1
Note 2.1



EN 301 489-34 V1.3.1 (new)

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 34: Specific conditions for External Power Supply (EPS) for mobile phones

EN 301 489-34 V1.1.1
Note 2.1


NOTE: Date Format is the European Date Format DD/MM/YYYY (List is an excerpt for the list provided at  and only represents new items)


For links to this and lists for other directives, please visit Compatible Electronics’ European Conformity Assessment page.

Friday, October 19, 2012

Update to Radio Equipment Rules proposed by European Commission

Outside the Berlaymont building of the Europea...
Outside the Berlaymont building of the European Commission (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The European Commission proposed on Wednesday to update the Radio Equipment Directive. The proposal has three main goals;
  1. To Strengthen the level of Compliance with the Directive
  2. To Clarify the Directive
  3. To Simplify the Directive
Market surveillance will be a big part of the primary objective to strengthen the level of compliance. The new requirements will clearly spell out the responsibilities and obligations for every market player be it the manufacturer or importer. Simplification will come in the form of reduced administrative overhead such as suppression of notification requirements of certain products. The proposal also introduces some new requirements such as control of Software, and Interoperability with accessories, and networks.

The new R&TTE directive is also to be aligned with the New Legislative Framework (NLF). The NLF negotiations were conducted at the Member States level, and without consideration for specific Directives. As a result many of the New Approach Directives have become misaligned with the NLF. In late 2011 a package of 9 other recast draft directives, “aligned” with the NLF have been submitted to the EU Council and Parliament.

· Low Voltage Directive 
· EMC Directive
· ATEX Directive
· Lifts Directive
· Simple Pressure Vessels Directive
· Measuring Instruments Directive
· Non-automatic Weighing Instruments Directive
· Civil Explosives Directive
· Pyrotechnic Articles Directive
Draft RE directive

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Crackdown on jammers continue with “NOJAM” and action against sellers on Craigslist

No one I know

No one I know (Photo credit: Mickipedia)

The FCC has a new weapon in its continued efforts to aggressively enforce the law with respect to the sale and use of illegal radio jammers. The new weapon is a dedicated jammer tip hotline, 1-855-55-NOJAM. The hotline is intended to make it easier for the general public to report offenders.

The Press Release announcing the new hotline encourages the public to call the hotline if;

  • you are aware of the ongoing use of a cell, GPS, or other signal jammer;
  • your employer operates a jammer in your workplace;
  • you observe a jammer in operation at your school or college;
  • you observe an advertisement for a jammer at a local store; or
  • you observe a jammer being operated on your local bus, train or other mass transit system.

In the Press Release, Michele Ellison, Chief of the Enforcement Bureau, said: “We need consumers to be our eyes and ears. Jammers do not just weed out noisy or annoying conversations and disable unwanted GPS tracking, they can prevent 9-1-1 and other emergency phone calls from getting through in a time of need.”

On the same day of the announcement, the Enforcement Bureau took action against another six individuals for advertising and selling signal jammers on the popular classified ad web site The actions come with a warning that the FCC intends to impose “Substantial Monetary Penalties” for similar violations going forward.

So how much will that $45 illegal jammer really cost? The Consumer Alert issued within an FCC Enforcement Advisory  explains penalties can exceed $100,000 per violation.

More about the activities related to jammer enforcement can be found on the Commission web site,


Thursday, October 11, 2012

Domestic Unlicensed Modular Radio Approval


Transmitter (Photo credit: Thorius)

What is a modular approval, how does one qualify for one, and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages in selecting to pursue a modular radio approval. I’ve addressed these questions in summary form here, and I provide some links for further reading.

A modular approval allows the approved product to be installed in different host devices, without the need for additional testing or authorization for the transmitter for each host system. Note that the host itself may still require authorization or reauthorization depending on the host, but the transmitter would not need to be recertified for each host.

There are 4 types of modular approvals;

1. Single-Modular transmitter

2. Limited Single-Modular transmitter

3. Split-Modular transmitter

4. Limited Split-Modular transmitter

A single-modular device is a device in a single package, and a split-modular is one where the radio front end and the control elements section may be separate.

The use of the word “Limited” indicates that the device may have certain grant conditions or be reliant on a specific host configuration for compliance. Integrators are cautioned to pay close attention to these limitations.

To qualify for modular approval, the device must comply with 8 specific conditions. For a Single-modular transmitter, the device is a self contained, physically delineated component that can demonstrate compliance independent of the host.

1. Radio circuitry must be shielded

2. Modulation / data inputs must be buffered.

3. Power supply regulation on the module

4. Permanent antenna or unique connector

5. Must demonstrate compliance stand alone (outside host)

6. Labeled with its own permanently fix FCC ID, or have electronic display capability

7. Must comply with applicable rules, and with grantee provided conditions

8. Must comply with applicable RF exposure requirements

A limited modular approval may be granted when a device does not meet all 8 of the conditions, but may rely on a specific host and applicable operating conditions for compliance. For instance, the shielding, buffered I/O or power regulation may be provided by a specific host. In these cases the module would be “Limited” to the specific host providing those requirements.

The first and probably most obvious benefit to a modular approval is that the radio module would not need to be recertified for every host installation, thus saving time and money when incorporating radio functions into multiple host devices. Other advantages may include;

· Changes to the host don’t affect the radio certification (except on “Limited modular”)

· Time to market for a new host is considerably less if the product does not require certification

· Ease of managing the radio certification, one FCC ID instead of many.

· Flexibility with installation within the host (except maybe on “Limited modular”)

· If the module is the product, it’s more attractive for an integrator to use a pre-certified device.

· The radio may be “End-User” replaceable (potential upgrade or repair)

Some items that may be negative points to a modular approval;

· Radio generally more expensive due to shielding, buffered i/o and power regulation

· Depending on host/antenna placement, transmitter power may be less than non-module type

· Integrating multiple transmitters (co-location) within a single host can be problematic

Things to pay attention to when using an already approved module;

· Be aware of the type of module and grant conditions or restrictions

· The term “Modular approval” is specific, if unsure check the FCC ID and look at the grant

· Follow all installation instructions and warnings provided by the grantee

Other things to possibly consider are RF exposure and/or hearing-aid compatibility, for devices with specific antennas, or specific host/enclosure configurations. The FCC has published a “Transmitter Module Equipment Authorization Guide”, KDB 996369, and I recommend reading through the guide if considering the modular approach.

To check a prospective module’s FCC approval, have the FCC ID ready and visit;

Keep in mind, the first 3 characters of the FCC ID are the Grantee Code, and note that the numbers 1 or 0 will never be part of the grantee code (to avoid confusion with the letters i and o). The grant will clearly indicate “Modular Approval” or “Limited Modular Approval” (LMA) if the device is so approved. At the time of writing this article, the FCC system only searches based on the legacy system of 3 digit grantee codes, however, the FCC is moving to a 5 digit grantee code system real soon – see

Compliance testing and certification costs of a Single-Modular transmitter are comparative to that of a non-modular approval of the same radio in most cases, in some cases it could be less expensive due to the simplified test setup and configuration of the module. Time and cost of Limited-Modular devices can vary depending on the host.

Of course this all applies to domestic FCC certification, but what about other regions?

Canada has a very similar approach to radio modules, see RSS-Gen, section 3.2.2 for details. In Europe, there is no “Modular Approval” process as the system is based on self-certification, but a somewhat similar approach can be taken, please see my article “Radio module integration and R&TTE compliance” for dealing with radio modules under the R&TTE Directive.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Free electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) seminar in Orange County


IEEE Logo (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It’s not often you get something for nothing these days, remember the old phrase, “There ain't no such thing as a free lunch”, well, this one will surely interest any engineers out there responsible for product compliance or EMC, and the best part is It's free. Mark your calendar!

The Orange County IEEE EMC chapter is hosting a presentation by  Mr. Kenneth Wyatt, Sr. EMC engineer with Wyatt Technical Services, LLC.

For over 20 years Mr. Wyatt has worked as a senior EMC engineer with Hewlett-Packard and Agilent Technologies. Kenneth is a senior member of the IEEE and a long time member of the EMC Society.

The presentation is titled “EMC Troubleshooting Kit, Workbench Measurements and Common Problems”.  This free and valuable presentation focuses on pre-compliance measurements and techniques, an indispensible tool set for anyone responsible for product compliance.

For more information, date time and location, and to register, please see IEEE vTools Meetings.

Friday, September 21, 2012

FCC Permits certification and use of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA)

English: A TETRA radio unit as well as an olde...

English: A TETRA radio unit as well as an older radio unit in a Swedish (Saab) police car Svenska: En RAKEL-enhet i en svensk polisbil (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The FCC announced in a report and order today that they are modifying the rules under Part 90 to permit the certification and use of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) equipment. Among other changes, Part 90 will now contain Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) limits to enable TETRA equipment to comply.

The TETRA standard was developed by the European Technical Standards Institute (ETSI) and released in 1995; it is widely used within Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa and South America. It was designed for government agency and emergency services use.

The problem for TETRA in the United States is that TETRA equipment does not observe limits on occupied bandwidth, rather adjacent channel power and unwanted emission limits at different frequency offsets are applied. As a consequence, TETRA equipment will exceed the Part 90 occupied bandwidth limits and emission masks here in the United States. In 2011, the FCC granted TETRA a waiver based on technical information submitted by the TETRA Association asserting that the TETRA equipment provides at least as much protection from interference to other services as  any other available technologies.

Thirty days from today’s publication, the TETRA technology will be permitted in the 450-470 MHZ, and 809-824/854-869 MHz band under a modified Part 90. Due to the nature of the trunked technology and it being incapable of monitoring a frequency prior to transmitting, TETRA may be employed only by licensees that are exempt from any monitoring requirements, such as operation above 512 MHz or on channels for which the licensee has exclusive use. Use is prohibited in the 700 MHz public safety spectrum as Congress has specified that Long Term Evolution (LTE) will be the required broadband technology for that segment.



C.F.R. Title 47, Part 90 – Private Land Mobile Radio Services

Friday, August 17, 2012

FCC cracking down on MVPD operators


Zenith (Photo credit: bcostin)

FCC issues a Public Notice informing non-cable, Multichannel Video Programming Distributors (MVPD), of the rules applicable to all MVPDs, cable provider or not, with regard to notification requirements and cable leakage limits and testing. On the same day, the FCC released several citations the bureau had issued, one to a hotel operator, one to a heath care center, and another to a rehabilitation hospital. All three citations were issued out of the Los Angeles Office, western region, of the FCC enforcement Bureau and all three cover violation of exceeding signal leakage limits in the aeronautical bands.

The notice explains that, like cable system operators, non-cable MVPDs must also notify the FCC prior to the use of any aeronautical frequency bands within their systems. Additionally, non-cable MVPDs must also comply with the same requirements cable operators follow with respect to preventing and testing for signal leakage. These rules can be found in Part 76 of Title 47 C.F.R.

An MVPD is any provider that distributes multichannel video programming, traditionally for a fee, for example the cable television systems. Non-cable MVPDs are exempt from the FCC’s legal definition of a cable system, but are subject to some of the same technical rules that traditional cable systems are. Examples of non-cable MVPDs are universities, hotels, apartment complexes and other multiple-unit communities, prisons, office buildings, and other facilities with in-house systems for making multiple channels of video programming available to subscribers or consumers.

The aeronautical frequency bands range from 108 – 137 MHz and 225 – 400 MHz, which correspond to cable channels 14-16, 25-53, and 98 & 99. Notification filing with the FCC is required once a year. All MVPDs must monitor for and repair signal leaks.

Fines for violators can range up to $37,500 per violation, per day of continued violation. It costs $60 to file a frequency usage notification form with the FCC, and no fees are assessed for filing the basic signal leakage performance report.


DA 12-1340

Citation No.: C201232900002

Citation No.: C201232900003

Citation No.: C201232900004

C.F.R. Title 47, Part 76

Friday, July 20, 2012

Class 1 Status of 2.4 GHz Wireless LAN in the EU

Class 2 Label sample EU R&TTE. Provided by;
Compatible Electronics, Inc..

Confirmed during a Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Compliance Association (R&TTE CA) meeting held in Vienna, May 2012, the French deviation has expired for the 2.4 GHz band making it a Class 1 band.

Till this point, the 2.4 GHz band has been considered Class 2 in the EU, that is, when importing your product, it must carry the number of a notified body and a special alert symbol in addition to the CE Mark, and you must notify member nations having restrictions, of your intention to place the product on the EU market. Additionally, the product literature would carry a warning of the restriction to “Indoor use only”.

While the notification requirements for the 2.4 GHz use have been eliminated for some time, the last item preventing the 2.4 GHz WLAN from being classified officially as a Class 1 R&TTE device went away on July 1st. The French deviation in the band restricting use of 2.4 GHz WLAN devices to “Indoor use only” has expired.

From July 1, 2012, 2.4 GHz WLAN devices no longer require the alert symbol or Notified Body number, so long as harmonized standards are applied in full to the conformance assessment.

For an explanation of what the class descriptor indicates, see this excerpt from the web site;

“Commission Decision 2000/299/EC defines how equipment is classified according to its use of radio spectrum. It defines two equipment classes as follows:

  • Class 1, which can be placed on the market and taken into service throughout the Community

  • Class 2, to which some Member States apply restrictions and which is required to carry an 'alert symbol'.”



Tuesday, July 10, 2012

FCC Rule Change Focus on Vehicle and Airport Safety

English: Collision Warning with Brake Support

English: Collision Warning with Brake Support (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

July 3, 2012, the FCC has amended Part 15 rules to enable enhanced vehicular radar technologies in the 76-77 GHz band, and to allow fixed radar applications at airports with an aim to improve safety for personnel and equipment.

The amendment includes a relaxation of limits for vehicular radar technologies, and is justified within the Report and Order, citing that maximum permissible limits for human exposure to RF electromagnetic fields had not been established at the time the rules were originally adopted (1995), and the original limits, intended to protect pedestrians in the proximity of stopped vehicles, are far more restrictive than the currently adopted RF exposure levels.

The modifications are applicable specifically to sections 15.35 and 15.253 of title 47 Part 15.

The amendment to section 15.35 eliminates the requirement that vehicular radars decrease power when the vehicle is not in motion. Furthermore this modification specifies a new relaxed emission limit for 76-77 GHz front, side, and rear illuminating vehicular radars. The FCC takes these actions in response to petitions filed by Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) and Era Systems Corporation (Era).

The modification of section 15.253 will allow fixed radar systems operating in the 76-77 GHz band to be installed at airport locations. These systems are used for foreign object debris (FOD) detection on runways as well as the ability to monitor aircraft and service vehicle traffic on the taxiways and other non-public ground locations.

The FCC justifies these modifications within the Report and Order claiming they “will provide more efficient use of the spectrum, and enable the automotive and aviation industries to develop enhanced safety measures for drivers and the general public”.

The 76-77 GHz band is considered Extremely High Frequency (EHF), and is within the “W band”, 75 GHz to 119 GHz. The EHF spectrum is what is commonly referred to as the millimeter wave spectrum, which is considered to begin at 30 GHz and end at 300 GHz.

The 76-77 GHz band is primarily allocated to the Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) and the Radiolocation service. Amateur and Space research (space-to-Earth) services utilize this band on a secondary basis.

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) has raised concerns about increased interference potential to radio astronomy operations if the rules are adopted. NRAO argues that vehicular radars may interfere with radio astronomy receivers over distances up to approximately 60 miles. NRAO states that “destruction of radio astronomy receivers is a serious possibility” due to the high powered vehicular radars. The Automotive industry disagrees with the claims citing that they are speculative. The FCC notes that vehicular radar has been permitted in the 76-77 GHz band since 1995, and that an increase in potential interference as a result of the rule change is negligible.


FCC Report and Order

NPRM ET Docket No. 11-90

Era Systems Corp. 2.803, 15.201, 15.253 waiver request and FCC response

Thursday, June 14, 2012

Multimedia Equipment, emission requirements standard EN 55032 held up due to errors.

Back of audio mixer at bull and gate london

Back of audio mixer at bull and gate London (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The CEN-CENELEC Management Centre (CCMC) was informed that a considerable number of errors were discovered during the publishing phase of the new EMC standard for multimedia equipment, CISPR 32:2012. The procedure has been endorsed by CENELEC as EN 55032:2012 (dor = 3/5/12). It has been noted that the document submitted for vote was the correct text however.

While the IEC is investigating possible options for correcting the matter, CCMC is informing of the errors and working with the IEC toward a speedy resolution to enable CENELEC members to implement corrections at the national level. The CCMC has also posted a note to the CENELEC website / database informing of this error.

The CCMC will not yet offer EN 55032:2012 to the European Commission for citing in the Official Journal. The intended listing was for the EMC and Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment ( R&TTE)  Directives.

Furthermore the Technical Committee will request that the Date of Withdrawal (DOW) be extended from dor+36 months to dor+60 months.

EN 55032:2012 has a broad scope and applies to multimedia equipment (MME) having a rated r.m.s. AC or DC supply voltage not exceeding 600 V. Equipment within the scope of CISPR 13 (EN 55013) or CISPR 22 (EN 55022) is within the scope of EN 55032. Multimedia equipment intended primarily for professional use is also within the scope of EN 55032.

The term “dor” refers to the date of ratification, and is the date when the technical board notes the approval of a European Norm (EN), at which time the standard may be said to be adopted.


CENELC Project : EN 55032:2012

CENELEC Guide 19

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

FCC running out of Grantee codes

WASHINGTON, DC - MAY 13:  FCC Chairman Julius ...
(Image credit: Getty Images via @daylife)
The availability of new FCC issued grantee codes is critically low, and the FCC will soon run out. Today the Commission voted to expand the code from 3, to 5 digits by amending Sections 2.925 and 2.926.

Each product certified to the FCC rules must carry an FCC ID, as an example look on the back of your electronic device for “FCC ID:xxx1234”. This identifier consists of a grantee code making up the first 3 digits, and an applicant assigned unique product code composed of from 1 to 14 additional alpha-numeric characters, dashes or hyphens.

Each entity seeking to obtain a grant of equipment authorization from the FCC, must first obtain the unique grantee code assigned by the FCC. This three digit format uses alpha numeric characters, excluding 0 and 1 in a way that would provide for over 30,000 unique combinations.

This FCC identifier system was introduced in 1979. In 1999, 440 grantee codes had been issued that year. In 2001, 635 grantee codes were issued, and in 2011 the number had increased to 1275 unique grantee codes issued per year.

Given the rate of grantee code issuance, the FCC will soon run out of unique codes. To extend this deadline, the FCC had been recycling old unused grantee codes, however this was only a temporary solution. Today the Commission approved a vote to extend the code to 5 digits. This will provide approximately 8,000,000 unique combinations.

Entities that currently have a 3 digit grantee code may keep the code, but new applicants will be assigned the new 5 digit grantee code approximately 30 - 60 days from the order’s publication in the federal register.

Open Commission Meeting June 13, 2012

Friday, May 11, 2012

FCC Extends commenting period for some draft publications

Logo of the United States Federal Communicatio...

(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The OET (Office of Engineering and Technologies) agreed to extend the commenting period for a number of Draft Knowledge Data Base publications, also known as KDBs,  until June 30, 2012, after receiving and reviewing a number of requests for such an extension.

This extension amounts to an additional 30 day review period. The FCC commented that given the number of different KDB guidance documents, it would be useful for all parties to take more time to review and comment.

Following are the affected draft KDBs;

- General RF Exposure Guidance (447498)

- SAR Evaluation consideration for LTE Devices (941225)

- SAR Measurement, Compliance Reporting, 100 MHz to 6 GHZ (865664)

- SAR Evaluation Considerations for Handsets with Multiple Transmitters (648474)

- SAR Evaluation Considerations for Laptop, Notebook, Netbook (616217)

- TCB Exclusion List (628591)

- Permit But Ask List (388624)

- RF Exposure Evaluation Considerations for Occupational Push-to-Talk Two-Way Radios (643646)

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

New R&TTE and EMC Standards List Published in OJ

New Harmonized standards lists have been published in the Official Journal of the European Union for the Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment(R&TTE) Directive and the EMC Directive.

R&TTE Directive Standards List

EMC Directive Standards List

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Wireless handset hearing aid compatibility standard adopted

Hearing aid types (300dpi)

Hearing aid types (300dpi) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The FCC has formally adopted ANSI C63.19 2011 as an applicable technical standard for evaluating the hearing aid compatibility of wireless phones.

As specified in the Second Further Notice, the new rules permit the use of either ANSI C63.19 2007, or ANSI C63.19 2011  for the testing of new handset models. All existing grants issued under the 2007 standard, as well as any pre-2010 grants remain valid, thus, no existing handset models will require retesting or recertification for hearing aid compatibility.

A 12 month transition period has been adopted for testing of multi-band and multi-mode handsets that incorporate operations which are not covered under the 2007 ANSI Standard. The Report and Order recognizes that as the new rules become effective, some manufacturers will be in production cycles where it will be impractical to return to a testing cycle for upcoming multi-band or multi-mode handsets under the 2011 ANSI Standard. Specifically, during the transition period, and as an alternative to using the 2011 standard, manufacturers may certify handsets as hearing aid compatible if they meet all compatibility criteria under the 2007 ANSI standard for all operations covered by that standard, providing they meet the disclosure requirements set forth in the order. After the transition period, all new handsets that contain operations not covered by the 2007 version will need to comply with the 2011 ANSI standard.

The Report and Order makes it clear that evaluations performed partly under one version of the ANSI standard, and partly under another, is incompatible with existing rules, thus manufacturers must test exclusively with one of the applicable versions.


Thursday, April 5, 2012

$12,000 “Dollar” Forfeiture Order

SAN Control Tower

SAN Control Tower (Photo credit: Peter Kaminski)

San Diego, California; FCC issues a forfeiture order in the amount of $12,000 to DTG Operations Inc., (d/b/a Dollar Rent-A-Car), after receiving complaints from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regarding intermittent interference to three ground control frequencies used by air traffic controllers at San Diego’s International Airport.

During investigation by FCC Enforcement Bureau’s San Diego Office, agents discovered the source of the interference signal to be emanating from a transmitter on a Dollar airport shuttle bus. Upon discovery, the manager of the Dollar facility immediately took the radio transmitter out of service.

In Response to an earlier Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture (NAL), Dollar requested that the fine be reduced because the violation was “an unintentional mistake,” which Dollar readily admitted, and because Dollar cooperated fully in the investigation. It was noted in the forfeiture order however that a reduction was not warranted.

For some information on the FCC enforcement process see “Enforcement Primer” on the web site. The legal firm Fish & Richardson has an article on their web site that gives a brief rundown on the process, as well as figures on Equipment manufacturer violations. Although the web page’s focus is on equipment violations associated with marketing rules and technical standards,  and not necessarily on the misuse of approved radio communication devices, the steps in enforcement are essentially the same.


Tuesday, April 3, 2012

How Important is enhanced Amateur Radio Communications?

An example of an Amateur Radio Station

An example of an Amateur Radio Station (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In a public notice released Monday, The FCC Wireless Telecommunications Bureau and Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau seek comments on the importance of the enhanced Amateur Radio Communications service, also inquiring as to any impediments of the service , with an example being "the effects of unreasonable or unnecessary private land use restrictions on residential antenna installations"

This inquiry is a product of the mandated study on utilization of Amateur Radio in emergencies and Federal regulation of private land use restrictions on amateur antennas, included in the “Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012” signed into law February 22, 2012.

The study asks two distinct questions, “Importance of emergency Amateur Radio Service communications” and “Impediments to enhanced Amateur Radio Service communications.”

The report cites several recent examples from the American Radio Relay League on the importance of amateur radio operators during disaster, such as  when amateur radio operators provided storm observations and damage reports to the National Weather Service when winds and tornadoes moved through Arkansas and Alabama in January 2012, and provided communications to villages along the Bering Sea when a November 2011 severe winter storm knocked out power lines and communications.

The commenting period is only 45 days, ending on May 17th, 2012. commenting is open to interested parties via the Commission’s Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). The report urges commenting parties to organize their comments using specific guidelines provided within the public notice.




Friday, March 30, 2012

FCC updates answer for exempt appliances

하상림 작가의 꽃 디자인이 적용된 냉장고와 김희애
하상림 작가의 꽃 디자인이 적용된 냉장고와 김희애 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Under Title 47, Part 15.103,  digital devices used exclusively in an appliance are exempt from the specific technical standards and other requirements of part 15. Seems simple enough, if it’s an appliance, then it’s exempt from FCC testing. So a vacuum cleaner is exempt from FCC testing, correct? How about an electric blanket? A hair dryer? A clothes iron? A juice extractor? of the previously mentioned 5 devices, 3 of them are exempt, but 2 are not, can you guess which ones are not exempt?

Did you guess correctly? This is where the old adage “the devil is in the details” comes to play. As is the case with much of the FCC rules, they are simply written, but often difficult to interpret. Thankfully the Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) has a Knowledge Base (KDB) system at, where one could go and research common questions or ask a question if needed.

One such KDB, answers the question “What household appliances, identified as Part 15 unintentional radiators, are considered exempt from the equipment authorization procedures?”.
On March 29th 2012 the answer was updated by adding to the list of Non-Exempt Devices; Power Tools, Cordless Multi-Tools and Battery Operated Tools . That is to say, those items are not considered appliances with respect to the 15.103 exemption and are subject to FCC testing.
Publication Number 772105 (3/29/2012) (new)
Publication Number 772105 (11/19/2009) (old)

Thursday, March 29, 2012

FCC Amends Rules for Tank Level Probing Radar

The FCC announced on Tuesday that they are expanding the scope of the proceeding proposed to cover Tank Level Probing Radar (TLPR) devices, originally applicable only to devices operating in the 77-81 GHz band, and contained within steel or concrete tanks. Citing requests for waivers and other inquiries as evidence of the increasing demand for a comprehensive set of guidelines for general level probing radar (LPR), to allow the use outdoors and on other frequencies, the FCC is proposing an amendment to Part 15 rules that would apply to the operation of LPR devices installed in both open-air environments and inside storage tanks in the following frequency bands:  5.925-7.250 GHz, 24.05-29.00 GHz, and 75-85 GHz.

Level probing radar applications are diverse but among the popular uses are process control systems used to measure the amount of various substances such as liquids and granulates.


FCC 12-34A1

ET Docket Nos. 10-23, 06-216 and 07-96, 25 FCC Rcd 601 (2010). 

Friday, March 23, 2012

Opportunity for innovative cordless broadband use - FCC modifies Part 15

Logo of the United States Federal Communicatio...

(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In a report and order released today, the FCC is amending part 15 subpart D covering Unlicensed Personal Communications Service devices (UPCS band). The introduction of the R&O is as follows;

By this action, we modify Part 15 of the rules governing the operation of Unlicensed Personal Communications Service (UPCS) devices in the 1920-1930 MHz frequency band (UPCS band) to promote more efficient use of the UPCS band and to facilitate the introduction of a new generation of unlicensed devices capable of supporting broadband connectivity using Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) technology. Specifically, we eliminate the least-interfered channel monitoring threshold for UPCS devices and reduce the number of duplex system access channels that a UPCS device must define and monitor from 40 to 20 channels in order to use the least-interfered channel access method.  These changes will provide UPCS devices, particularly those designed to transmit with wider bandwidths, access to more usable channels (i.e., combined time and spectrum windows) than are permitted under the existing rules and unleash innovative cordless broadband technologies in the UPCS band, while limiting the potential for causing interference to other devices.  We also modify the rules to remove outdated provisions and to make other minor updates.


ET Docket No. 10-97

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

2011 market surveillance report EU –are tablet PCs a target for 2012?

English: CE logo

Image via Wikipedia

Bundesnetzagentur (Federal Network Agency) of Germany, for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railway has the responsibility to carry out the market surveillance under the EMC and R&TTE Directives.

The agency published a summary of the 2011 market surveillance campaign on its web site. The campaign’s primary focus in 2011 was with the EMC directive and in particular, LED lighting equipment. The report also combines results from the 2010 and 2011 campaigns to give a summary overall and to achieve a low error probability due to the larger sample size.

For some background on emissions concerning LED product, see July 2011 post “Radio interference from LED lighting”.

The surveillance looked at administrative conformity, such as marking, documentation and declarations, as well as the technical aspects of the directive namely compliance with the emissions and immunity requirements. A total of 168 products were sampled in 2011.

On the administrative side, the surveillance found that 76.8% of the samples were compliant with the CE marking requirements, while only 39.9% were compliant with the Declaration of Conformity (DoC) requirements.

For the technical assessment, 61.5% of product complied with the radio emissions requirement, and 91.3% were found immune to specific interference phenomenon, out of 46 products tested overall.

In total, only 17.3% of LED lighting equipment was found to be fully compliant.

For the “reactive market surveillance”, the overall rate of non-compliance for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) was 38.9%. For radio and telephone terminal equipment (R&TTE) a majority, 65.5%, was found non-compliant according to the report, but most concerning was that 75.6% of the R&TTE products checked were non-compliant with the safety and health measurement requirements.

The 2011 surveillance resulted in 90 EMC sales bans, 177 R&TTE sales bans, 353 “memoranda of understanding” between the two directives, and total revenues of €1,046,000

The report details some objectives for 2012 indicating supporting the revision of the EMC and R&TTE directives and transposition into national law, including harmonizing product assessment for market surveillance, and increasing cooperation with European market surveillance and customs authorities as well as adapting the national database for market surveillance results, to the European ICSMS database.

Two product group targets were mentioned for 2012, one a coordinated German/Dutch campaign targeting tablet PCs focused on the R&TTE directive, and another targeting “Ready-made connecting devices”, or laptop power supplies.



Market surveillance statistics 2011

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

New EMC Directive

European flag outside the Commission

Image via Wikipedia

I thought I would include this in my Q&A series.  I have been receiving these questions often,

Do you expect that a new EMC directive will be coming ?


What impact may it have on my current test plan or program ? 

The answer  to part one is yes, and it could be very soon. As part of  the “Goods package”, the current EMC directive, 204/108/EC, is being amended in what is called an alignment with the New Legislative Framework of the European Union (or NLF). The EMC directive is part of what is called an “Alignment Package”. Eight other directives will also be processed in this alignment.

On the second question, the first thing to note is that the new approach directives are not technical in nature, but rather legal documents. Think of them as the “Law” of the land on the topics they cover. How you comply with the laws are another matter. The technical aspects are primarily addressed by Harmonised Standards or “EN” specifications. So, the EMC technical requirements, i.e. your testing, should not be impacted by this amendment to the EMC directive. While it is expected that the scope of the EMC directive will remain essentially the same, anytime that a directive comes up for amendment, interested parties look at it as an opportunity to address issues they may want included, see for example my post on cables being proposed:

The areas that would see significant change are;

  • your documents (Declaration of Conformity) will change.
  • A new directive number may require documents be modified, such as test reports, however there should be a reasonable transition period.
  • Traceability requirements and product labeling, with specific identifying information on each product.
  • Economic operators must keep records of supplier and distributor (already required for consumer goods)
  • New supply chain duties, harmonized across the EU.
  • Enforcement authority will be able to target more directly those infringing due to supply chain reporting requirements.
  • Expectation is that Post market surveillance activities could increase substantially (this is one of the main points of the “Goods Package”)

If not already, please subscribe to updates of the EMCrules blog. The blog is helpful in providing timely information on rule changes, and other topical news, that may affect our broad clientele. Comments are welcome.



EMC directive at EUR-Lex -  32004L0108

/* COM/2011/0763 final */  (Alignment of ten technical harmonisation directives to Decision No 768/2008/EC)

Marketing of products - CE conformity marking

New Legislative Framework (NLF) Alignment Package

Proposals to Align Nine Directives with the New Legislative Framework – Published by BIS Department for Business Innovation & Skills

Single market for goods New Legislative Framework

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Industry Canada publishes new / updated Radio standards

On January 28th Industry Canada published the following radio standards; (Link to IC web site)

  • Radio Standards Specification RSS-111, Issue 4: Broadband Public Safety Equipment Operating in the Band 4940-4990 MHz, which sets out the requirements for certification of radio transmitters and receivers in the band 4940-4990 MHz for public safety applications;
  • Radio Standards Specification RSS-182, Issue 5: Maritime Radio Transmitters and Receivers in the Band 156-162.5 MHz, which sets out the requirements for certification of radio transmitters and receivers in the maritime service in the band 156-162.5 MHz; and


In addition Industry Canada announced changes to RSS-Gen and RSS-310 , effective immediately , via notice NOTICE 2012-DRS0126. These changes modify section 2.2 of RSS-Gen covering Receivers, and noted that section 3.1 from RSS-310 is no longer required.

RSS-Gen section ‘ 2.2 Receivers ’ clarifies that ;

Only radiocommunication receivers operating in stand-alone mode within the band 30 MHz to 960 MHz and scanner receivers are subject to Industry Canada requirements


All other receivers are excluded from any Industry Canada certification, testing, labeling and reporting requirements.

Monday, February 20, 2012

FCC Calling for Volunteers with Expansion of Nationwide Broadband Tests

Character for children of FCC"Broadband"

Image via Wikipedia

The FCC is back for a second round of volunteers, this time for the “2012 Measuring Broadband America” process. The FCC plans to issue two “Measuring Broadband Reports” for 2012. This time the FCC will be expanding the study group into new regions of the country, and include more technologies within the study. The first round begins in March 2012.

The first study examined offerings from 13 wire line broadband providers with the help of thousands of volunteers during March of 2011. The report, and other information, can be found at

The FCC is requesting volunteers. Volunteers that sign up, will receive a free wireless router from SamKnows, an FCC contractor. The router will be pre-programed to measure broadband speeds to the home. For more information on how to volunteer,  visit

see the FCC Public Notice at

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Solve for X: Anthony Sutera on low power wireless everywhere

What do you think? Completely Impossible?

To quote the 1st of Arthur C. Clarke’s three laws of prediction
 “If an elderly but distinguished scientist says that something is possible, he is almost certainly right; but if he says that it is impossible, he is very probably wrong”

Is this the 1st stage of Clarke’s Law of Revolutionary Ideas, or just Science Fiction? If it is for real, this would indeed be a revolution in antenna design. If not, it's still an intriguing thought, and on that alone the video is worth a look.

In an article from Technology review back in 2009, a process for creating nano-capacitors developed by Sang Bok Lee, and Gary Rubloff was described. The process was similar to the ones used to make memory chips, orders of magnitude more difficult than the "spray on" method described in the Solve for X video.